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The following sections describe the standard types that are built into the interpreter. The principal built-in types are numerics, sequences, mappings, classes, instances and exceptions. Some collection classes are mutable. The methods that add, subtract, or rearrange their members in place, and don
The @classmethod form is a function decorator – see the description of function definitions in Function definitions for details.. It can be called either on the class (such as C.f()) or on an instance (such as C().f()).The instance is ignored except for its class. If a class method is called for a derived class, the derived class object is passed as the implied first argument.
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Convert a value to a formatted representation, as controlled by format_spec. The interpretation of format_spec will depend on the type of the value argument, however there is a standard formatting syntax that is used by most built-in types: Format Specification Mini-Language. frozenset([iterable]) Return a frozenset object, optionally with elements taken from iterable.
It's like JSON. but fast and small. MessagePack is an efficient binary serialization format. It lets you exchange data among multiple languages like JSON.
Code equivalence. The exact code used to implement f-strings is not specified. However, it is guaranteed that any embedded value that is converted to a string will use that value's __format__ method. This is the same mechanism that str.format() uses to convert values to strings.. For example, this code:
The zipfile module uses this to define a class that can decrypt an encrypted zip file with a given password. The zip decryption algorithm requires you to store state during decryption. Defining the decryptor as a class allows you to maintain this state within a single instance of the decryptor class. The state is initialized in the __init__() method and updated as the file is decrypted.